Infrastructure : doing more with less | The World Bank

Adequate urban infrastructure can be expensive, but the costs of not delivering housing, transportation, water, sewage, public facilities, and other necessities are also high. Inadequate infrastructure slows and even reverses economic growth, driving unemployment, crime, and urban decay. It can fuel urban tensions by widening divisions among ethnic or income groups or between long-time residents … Continúa leyendo Infrastructure : doing more with less | The World Bank

Housing and urbanization in Africa : unleashing a formal market process | The World Bank

  The accumulation of decent housing matters both because of the difference it makes to living standards and because of its centrality to economic development. The consequences for living standards are far-reaching. In addition to directly conferring utility, decent housing improves health and enables children to do homework. It frees up women’s time and enables … Continúa leyendo Housing and urbanization in Africa : unleashing a formal market process | The World Bank

Why don’t remittances appear to affect growth ? | The World Bank

Although measured remittances by migrant workers have soared in recent years, macroeconomic studies have difficulty detecting their effect on economic growth. This paper reviews existing explanations for this puzzle and proposes three new ones. First, it offers evidence that a large majority of the recent rise in measured remittances may be illusory — arising from … Continúa leyendo Why don’t remittances appear to affect growth ? | The World Bank

A global assessment of human capital mobility: the role of non-OECD destinations | The World Bank

Discussions of high-skilled mobility typically evoke migration patterns from poorer to wealthier countries, which ignore movements to and between developing countries. This paper presents, for the first time, a global overview of human capital mobility through bilateral migration stocks by gender and education in 1990 and 2000, and calculation of nuanced brain drain indicators. Building … Continúa leyendo A global assessment of human capital mobility: the role of non-OECD destinations | The World Bank

Urbanization as opportunity | The World Bank

Urbanization deserves urgent attention from policy makers, academics, entrepreneurs, and social reformers of all stripes. Nothing else will create as many opportunities for social and economic progress. The urbanization project began roughly 1,000 years after the transition from the Pleistocene to the milder and more stable Holocene interglacial. In 2010, the urban population in developing … Continúa leyendo Urbanization as opportunity | The World Bank

Housing matters | The World Bank

Housing matters to the livability of cities and to the productivity of their economies. The failure of cities to accommodate the housing needs of growing urban populations can be seen in the proliferation of poorly serviced, high-density informal settlements. Such settlements are not new in the history of rapidly growing cities, their persistence results as … Continúa leyendo Housing matters | The World Bank

Converting land into affordable housing floor space | The World Bank

Cities emerge from the spatial concentration of people and economic activities. But spatial concentration is not enough; the economic viability of cities depends on people, ideas, and goods to move rapidly across the urban area. This constant movement within dense cities creates wealth but also various degrees of unpleasantness and misery that economists call negative … Continúa leyendo Converting land into affordable housing floor space | The World Bank

Urbanization and the geography of development | The World Bank

This paper focuses on three interrelated questions on urbanization and the geography of development. First, although we herald cities with their industrial bases as “engines of growth,” does industrialization in fact drive urbanization? While such relationships appear in the data, the process is not straightforward. Among developing countries, changes in income or industrialization correlate only … Continúa leyendo Urbanization and the geography of development | The World Bank

Overview — the urban imperative : toward shared prosperity | The World Bank

Urbanization is undoubtedly a key driver of development — cities provide the national platform for prosperity, job creation, and poverty reduction. But urbanization also poses enormous challenges that one is familiar with: congestion, air pollution, social divisions, crime, the breakdown of public services and infrastructure, and the slums that one billion urban resident’s call home. … Continúa leyendo Overview — the urban imperative : toward shared prosperity | The World Bank

The great migration : urban aspirations | The World Bank

The great 21st-century migration into cities will present both a great challenge for humanity and a significant opportunity for global economic growth. This paper describes the diverse patterns that define this metropolitan migration. It then lays out a framework for understanding the costs and benefits of new arrivals through migration’s externalities and the challenges and … Continúa leyendo The great migration : urban aspirations | The World Bank