New MoMA exhibition explores the architecture of displacement | News | Archinect

http://archinect.com/news/article/149944079/new-moma-exhibition-explores-the-architecture-of-displacement

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Foster + Partners Collab Aims to Make 3D Printing An Accessible Building Technology / Architizer

3D printing is often hailed as a revolutionary technology. It might become the next home computer or desktop printer — both of which changed the way we work and play. The evolution of computers sets a precedent for how 3D printers will progress: before the PC and Macintosh came along, scientists used enormous mainframe computers that took up entire rooms. The research that miniaturized these technologies to make them consumer-ready was what really changed the world.

That is the impetus behind a development agreement between construction company Skanska, London architecture firm Foster + Partners, and researchers at Loughborough University (LU). The collaboration aims to bring 3D printing to architecture, by refining a prototype robotic printer and establishing the supply chain necessary for the printing process. Skanska, along with Foster + Partners, has already been developing the technology in conjunction with Buchan Concrete and Lafarge Tarmac.

In order for 3D printing to realize its potential as a limitless technology for the masses, the companies creating the printers need to improve their resolution for consumer-grade printers and make them more affordable. NASA has just recently printed an object in space, while several small residences have been built at “low-resolution,” i.e., with minimal detail. Currently, 3D printing technology is still in the phase of experimentation and largely relegated to the realm of the fantastic, but Foster and the firm’s collaborators want to change that. (…)

+ artículo publicado en Architizer

Next Generation Infrastructure Behaves Like Nature | The Dirt

Between crumbling bridges, rising sea levels, growing garbage piles, and the ravages of drought and storms, we’ve grown used to bad news when it comes to infrastructure in the United States. Old systems are failing, new challenges arising, and solutions are elusive or perplexing. Into this maelstrom enters Hillary Brown, architect, infrastructure consultant and professor at the Spitzer School of Architecture. Her new book Next Generation Infrastructure: Principles for Post-Industrial Public Works, is an inspiring argument for infrastructure that behaves like nature.

Armed with simple prescriptions, Brown argues that the next generation of infrastructure cannot resemble the hard, single-function and carbon-intensive structures of yore. Rather, we need “more diversified, distributed, and interconnected infrastructural assets that simulate the behavior of natural systems.” She walks us through the principles of a new ecological infrastructure piece by piece, with abundant case studies that show that ingenious, multi-purpose, carbon-neutral, resilient systems are not a pipe dream. She pays careful attention to how they were implemented, reinforcing the argument that these case studies are models that can be applied beyond their exceptional contexts.

On a world tour of next generation infrastructure, Brown stops to describe ingenious feats of co-location, “decarbonizing” infrastructure (that is, infrastructure which emits low or no carbon), and soft-path water systems. Highlights include a Malaysian automobile tunnel that retains stormwater, a French waste recovery center that powers public buses, and a Northern California wastewater treatment wetland that also provides walking trails and wildlife habitat.

arcata

Other chapters emphasize resilient infrastructures in the light of the paradoxical abundance and scarcity of water facing areas around the globe. The clever, even artful, solutions to what seem like insurmountable solutions make for an inspiring read, even if the black and white illustrations and (unfortunately not very clear) flow charts breaking down complex loops and systems are not in the same spirit.

Particularly notable in an era of tight budgets and low expectations is Brown’s attention to the social aspects of infrastructure planning and design. An important part of her problem-solving focuses on combining amenity with utility, and close attention to siting and design. This is not only important to make sure that particular groups do not unfairly bear the brunt of everyone’s waste, water, and energy systems needs. People living near such projects can benefit from the community assets, not to mention new jobs, that new infrastructure can provide.

japan

In this regard, but not only in this one, Brown argues that design is key. The design implications of co-location and systems thinking are huge, as are the opportunities for landscape architects, architects, and planners. Integrative thinking, cross-disciplinary design, and spatial imagination are essential for developing the next generation of ecological infrastructure. A leading role for designers is another piece of good news in an area often lacking for it.

Read the book.

This guest post is by Mariana Mogilevich, PhD, assistant professor, metropolitan studies program, New York University.

+ artículo publicado en The Dirt

 

Singapore Sets a Record For World’s Largest Vertical Garden | Archinect

 

Image via blogs.wsj.com.

In land-scarce Singapore greenery too is going sky-ward, with a 24-storey condominium earning a Guinness record for boasting the world’s largest vertical garden.
Tree House condominium, completed in 2013 by property firm City Developments Limited, has covered its façade in nearly 2,300 square meters of greenery. […]
The condo uses the plants as natural insulation to help filter pollution, absorb heat and reduce the amount of energy needed to cool individual units. —
blogs.wsj.com

+ artículo publicado en Archinect

What will government look like in 2050? | World Economic Forum

Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s painting Allegory of Good and Bad Government (1337-1339) covers three walls of the Sala dei Nove in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena. The depiction of good government shows a dignified ruler sitting among the virtues of Courage, Justice, Magnanimity, Peace, Prudence and Temperance. The image of the city is one of stability, prosperity and happiness.

This marvellous depiction reminds us that citizens have been discussing the importance of good government for as long as there have been governments for them to discuss. In every historical era from our own back to ancient Greece, citizens have clearly perceived that the difference between good and bad government decisively affects their quality of life.

While good government is in some ways a timeless issue, however, it is also being transformed by the digital revolution. Cheap and speedy communication makes it easier for citizens to compare the performance of their government with that of others. All things being equal, if the citizens of country “X” know that the citizens of country “Y” enjoy, for example, better living standards, it exacerbates their dissatisfaction with the government of country “Y”.

Technology can give voice to a plethora of networked groups, and make it easier to participate in decision-making processes. It can allow for a greater transparency of government actions and service delivery – undermining, for example, the ability of corrupt officials to withhold from citizens information about their rights and to demand discretionary payments. It can flatten hierarchical structures, making it easier for citizens to hold governments accountable.

Yet while technology can strengthen good government, the digital era also brings challenges. Keeping pace with changing tools and technologies can be complex and expensive. Security and protection of data becomes a critical risk to be managed. The more essential government services are delivered electronically, the greater the risk that citizens who do not have access to technology, or are not comfortable with it, will be left behind.

The Future of Government Smart Toolkit report, published today, asks how governance could look in 2050. By identifying the trends that will change the future of government, leaders can envision the future that they want for their countries and map out how to get there in a context of uncertainty. For example, governments may decide they need to invest in improving the digital literacy of the population, or in infrastructure such as e-service kiosks in rural locations.

In charting a route towards better government through technology, two themes are paramount. The first is restoring trust in the political process, which is worryingly low. In 1964, three-quarters of Americans said they trusted their government; now, only a quarter feel that way. In the European Union, according to the Eurobarometer, trust has almost halved from 53% in 2001 to 27% in 2012. It is no coincidence that the decline in trust has coincided with widening inequality and a weakening sense of social cohesion.

While open data and e-participation have the potential to reduce alienation, technologically enabled government surveillance and control can increase it. Delayed or ineffective e-government platforms can also undermine citizens’ trust in the competence of their leaders.

The second underlying factor is leadership: the information revolution is redefining structures of power by reducing the traditional sense of distance between those in leadership positions and their constituents. Future disruptive technologies are likely to further change the nature of leadership, and the ways in which this happens will shape the evolution of the social contract between governments and citizenry.

If Lorenzetti were to be given another three walls to cover in 2050, it’s hard to predict exactly what his painting might depict; technology is rapidly evolving, and potentially destabilizing as well as often empowering. Only if leaders develop a long-term strategic vision will they be able to identify the right tools and approach to shape the future of good government in their societies.

See also:

2050: How can we avoid an electronic 1984? By Rod Beckstrom

2050: How can we avoid a gated world? By Joseph Nye

2050: What if cities ruled the world? By Razeen Sally

Author: Joseph S. Nye Jr is University Distinguished Service Professor, Harvard University, USA

Image: Members of Italy’s parliament look at their computers during the second day of the presidential election in the lower house of the parliament in Rome April 19, 2013. REUTERS/M

+ artículo publicado en World Economic Forum

 

El grafeno y sus aplicaciones en la construcción o arquitectura | ovacen

La nanotecnología aplicada a la eficiencia energética: El grafeno y sus aplicaciones en la arquitectura y construcción

Uno de los primeros proyectos que se presentó –año 2011- en base a partir de un material compuesto de grafeno fue el Hydra Skyscraper (Imagen de portada)  por un estudio multidisciplinar serbio formado por Milos Vlastic, Vuk Djordjevic, Ana Lazovic, Milica Stankovic que tuvo un reconocimiento de honor en arquitectura ante los premios EVOLO.

Se pretendía ante su alta conductividad térmica y eléctrica, además de su gran resistencia superando en doscientas veces al acero,  captar la energía que se produce durante las tormentas eléctricas y almacenar la energía producida en mega-baterías ubicadas en la base del edificio. El proyecto también incluía un centro de investigación, viviendas, y zonas de recreo para los científicos y sus familias. Futuro o no,  ya se veía venir las posibilidades de un material que está revolucionando tanto el campo de la tecnología como las diversas aplicaciones que puede tener.

Más adelante apareció el concepto “Grafeno Loft” (Del estudio Arketiposchile – Más info… AQUÍ)  Una forma distinta a lo tradicional, mejorando el uso de los elementos estructurales, utilizando la forma del hexágono como base, y la fuerza del grafeno como material principal.

grafeno loft El grafeno y sus aplicaciones en la construcción o arquitectura

Podemos reconocer que el grafeno será el material del futuro. Los últimos estudios realizados por algunas universidades europeas han permitido obtener materiales que mejoran de manera considerable el rendimiento de las células de los captadores solares y su eficiencia,  como fruto de estas investigaciones se han podido obtener materiales como el aerogel de grafeno que se caracteriza  por ser un material ligero y altamente eficiente como aislamiento térmico.

estructura del grafeno El grafeno y sus aplicaciones en la construcción o arquitectura

Propiedades del grafeno.

Gran conductor de la electricidad: Supera con creces las propiedades de materiales que habitualmente empleamos como el cobre y necesita menor cantidad de electricidad para transportar energía en relación a otros materiales como el silicio, de manera que el grafeno es capaz de generar energía eléctrica a partir de la energía del sol.

Enorme dureza. Se trata de un material unas 200 veces más duro que el acero, pudiéndose asimilar a la del diamante. Por ello hablamos de que será resistente al desgaste, y capaz de soportar elevadas cargas.

Gran flexibilidad. Presenta una gran elasticidad lo que lo hacen un material moldeable, permitiendo así gran variedad de aplicaciones.

Puede reaccionar con otras sustancias. Esta propiedad permite poder crear materiales nuevos a partir de la estructura inicial del mismo, con la posibilidad de incrementar sus aplicaciones.

Además según investigaciones de un equipo de científicos españoles puede absorber toda la luz en su monocapa atómica, pudiendo captar la luz de diferentes colores, lo que lo convierten en ideal para desarrollo de materiales fotosensores de aplicación en captadores solares fotovoltaicos de alta eficiencia, debido a que los captadores que se fabrican actualmente están desarrollados con materiales semiconductores como el silicio, de forma que sólo pueden captar y absorber una parte de la radiación infrarroja recibida del sol.

El grafeno y sus aplicaciones en construcción: Aislamientos y equipos de alta eficiencia.

Entre las aplicaciones más significativas del grafeno dentro del campo de la construcción, y en particular para mejorar la eficiencia energética en edificios, destacan los siguientes materiales obtenidos a partir del mismo:

Aerogel de grafeno, el cual, dado que se trata del material más ligero y eficiente como  aislamiento térmico,permite su aplicación para obtener soluciones de ahorro energético de altas  prestaciones.

Se podrán emplear como aislamientos láminas de unos 5 mm de espesor de aerogel de     grafeno, con lo cual estamos hablando de espesores mucho menores que los aislantes tradicionales,   lo que va a permitir un gran ahorro de espacio y mejora de la eficiencia energética, no solo en la        construcción de edificios, sino también en la fabricación de paneles solares. Además de su mínimo   espesor,  se trata de un material muy flexible y fuerte, de alta   resistencia a   acciones mecánicas y   de fácil instalación.

En la fabricación de paneles solares de doble tubo con el objetivo de aislar la conexión entre el  panel y el tanque de almacenamiento de agua.

Recubrimientos de óxido de titanio de nanopartítulas, para recubrimiento y protección de tubos ,con lo que se mejora su eficiencia y su duración y se protegen de la acción de agentes  externos como las inclemencias meteorológicas, los rayo ultravioleta, y de otro tipo de acciones de   tipo mecánico.  El óxido de titano presenta muy buenas propiedades como fotocatalizador y protege    al tubo  de cualquier agresión del exterior.

Fabricación de paneles solares fotovoltaicos con células realizadas con aerogel de grafeno,   dado su elevado rendimiento al absorber toda la luz solar y sus buenas prestaciones como material  fotosensible, facilitándose el montaje y la instalación de los mismos al ser un material ligero,    incrementando su vida útil y mejorando su eficiencia y su rendimiento y reduciendo costes para las     empresas

Fabricación de cables de conexión en los paneles solares de gran eficiencia, debido a la menor  tasa de conductividad del aerogel, haciéndolo de gran utilidad y sobre todo en instalaciones solares.

En el siguiente vídeo se nos explican algunas de sus aplicaciones más importantes del grafeno:

Además de estas aplicaciones, el campo de la nanotecnología presenta muchas otras que se podrán aplicar dentro de la construcción, que podrán ayudarnos a mejorar en la calidad del edificio acabado así como en que el mismo pueda ser eficiente energéticamente y sobre todo respetuoso con el medio ambiente. Algunas de sus aplicaciones están orientadas a mejorar el aislamiento térmico de las envolventes de los edificios con mínimos espesores, fabricación de materiales o aleaciones resistentes a la corrosión, que no se oxiden, duraderos, resistentes a la acción del fuego, de la humedad, facilidad de mantenimiento y limpieza, etc.

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Enlaces de interés:

Materiales innovadores. ¿Dónde buscar?

El urbanismo vivo y ecológico.

Calefacción y refrigeración por algas.

Luz e iluminación natural.

Edificio Green Lighthouse Dinamarca.

El plástico en la arquitectura actual.

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Artículo elaborado por José Luis Morote Salmeron (Arquitecto Técnico – Gestor Energético – Perfil de Google plus) Acceso a su web AQUI, en colaboración con  OVACEN.

+ artículo publicado en ovacen